When Makow was occupied, Sam fled to Soviet territory. He returned to Makow for provisions, but was forced to remain in the ghetto.
Chosen for Destruction: The Story of a Holocaust Survivor
In , he was deported to Auschwitz. As the Soviet army advanced in , Sam and other prisoners were sent to camps in Germany. The inmates were put on a death march early in American forces liberated Sam after he escaped during a bombing raid. The gas chamber was also a hall just like this one, with two chutes, two, uh, like chimneys going all the way to the top, with perforated metal. Had holes about a quarter of an inch all around, all four corners, and it was two or three sheets of metal, one into the other with holes.
That chute went all the way up to the roof, which was almost flat to the ground outside. That's where the SS men were standing as soon as the bunker was filled in, yeah wait a minute When they filled in the bunker with all the women they put the men in. And sometimes they had 20 or 30 extra people that they couldn't get in, so they always held back children. And when the bunker was already so filled they couldn't put no more people, no more When the door was slammed behind them, was a thick door, was about six inches thick. I built it myself and I know what it's like: three bolts, three iron bars were across.
The bars were laid over and then screwed tight. The men, the SS men were standing outside with a Red Cross wagon and they had the gas can He put a mask on, had to put a mask on, tore the lid off of the gas The crematorium two and And as soon as he threw the gas in he slammed the lid shut, so the gas wouldn't escape.
And all you could hear is one loud sound, "Shema And that took about five to ten minutes. In the door they had a little peephole with four or five layers of glass in between, and it was with bars so nobody could break the glass through. And when they turned on the light into the Ruth was four years old when the Germans invaded Poland and occupied Ostrowiec. Her family was forced into a ghetto. Germans took over her father's photography business, although he was allowed to continue working outside the ghetto.
Before the ghetto was liquidated, Ruth's parents sent her sister into hiding, and managed to get work at a labor camp outside the ghetto. Ruth also went into hiding, either in nearby woods or within the camp itself. When the camp was liquidated, Ruth's parents were split up. Ruth was sent to several concentration camps before eventually being deported to Auschwitz. After the war, Ruth lived in an orphanage in Krakow until she was reunited with her mother. I don't know, as a child I kind of accepted things as they were happening, because there was nothing I could do about it but try to stay ahead, to survive.
For some reason or other that was the most important thing, is to survive. That's all you heard everybody say: "Oh, we've got to survive and tell the world what is going on. I mean, if only for that reason, just, because it was just unbelievable. And this idea that, that you go up in smoke became a rea They would never come out.
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So you realized that something is happening to them, and seeing the, the chimneys smoking continuously, especially after a transport--even at my age you kind of put two and two together and realize that yes, this is where you go, behind those, that fence that has the, uh, the blankets on it and the trees covering something that goes on behind there, that you go in and you don't come out anymore.
Exactly what was happening I don't know, all I knew is that you come out the chimney. And as the, uh, crematoriums were working, it, it left such a sweet taste in your mouth that you didn't even feel like eating. During these times I can honestly say I, at times I wasn't even hungry because it was so sickening. Irene and her twin brother Rene were born Renate and Rene Guttmann.
The family moved to Prague shortly after the twins' birth, where they were living when the Germans occupied Bohemia and Moravia in March A few months later, uniformed Germans arrested their father. Decades later, Irene and Rene learned that he was killed at the Auschwitz camp in December Irene, Rene, and their mother were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto, and later to the Auschwitz camp.
At Auschwitz, the twins were separated and subjected to medical experiments. Irene and Rene remained separated for some time after their liberation from Auschwitz. I, of course, have, um, unfortunately a lot of memories of, um, of the hospital and, um, the doctor's office. It, I seem to recall spending a great deal of time, um, there. And also being in the hospital and being very sick. And, um, I know one time, when I went to the doctor's office, that they took blood from me and, it was extremely painful because it was from the left side of my neck.
That's a strange thing to remember. I also remember having blood taken out of my finger, but that wasn't quite so bad. And I also remember having to sit, um, very still for long periods to be measured and, or weighed, or in X rays. I rem I remember X rays, X rays. I remember injections.
And then I'd be sick. Because then I, I'd be in this hospital.
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And I remember having a high fever, because I know they were taking my temperature, somebody was. Um, I really got to hate doctors. I, I got to be afraid. I used, I was terribly scared of doctors, I still am. They're a nightmare.
Hospitals are out of the question and illness is unacceptable. In her postwar testimony, Olga Albogen, a Holocaust survivor, relates to her family's arrival in Auschwitz in the following way, "…We didn't even say goodbye to Mother and the little ones. We just had some food yet from home and I gave it to my mother and said, "We'll see you tonight. It was such a commotion there in Auschwitz… So many people…And when they emptied the wagons, thousands and thousands and trains kept on coming from all over Europe, not just Hungary.
It was just unbelievable. Entire families often arrived in Auschwitz, but soon after their arrival, they were brutally broken apart. SS medical personnel, including the infamous Dr. Josef Mengele, conducted selections among these lines, sending most victims to the gas chambers where they were usually killed and burned on the same day. Mengele and his colleagues also conducted so-called "medical experiments" on human beings in the camp. The other forty percent went over the pockets of the dead people to find a piece of bread…The hygienic condition was very, very poor in that period.
I remember that I searched a dead body in the bunk and I found a piece of bread.kgroupeg.net/docs/metropolitan/vulo-single-frauen-klagenfurt.php
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That piece of bread was crawling with lice and you shook them off the bread and put it in your mouth and ate it. We all were crawling with lice. Taking a shower was not an option. If you walked through the mud you probably lost a shoe and then you had to go barefoot.
So it would be damned if I do and damned if I don't.