For a thousand years the Islamic civilization was the central light whose rays illumined the world. It was the mother of European culture, for men reared in this civilization were the masters in the Customers Also Viewed. It helps whoever recites the Qur'an It helps whoever recites the Qur'Gn This book rounds up a series of atlases, written and compiled by the author in the same pattern.
It reviews the biography of the Prophet S and tracks the places he honored by his visits, the Actually, the topic of Tawassul using a means to seek Allah's help is one of the controversial issues among Muslim nation that has not been understood in its due perspective, and which proved And that you be dutiful to your parents A spicy, oriental perfume oil with a fusion of pure Dehnal Oudh intriguingly blended with amber and sandalwood enhanced by the aroma of Taifi Roses. This meditative-like composition We are living now-a-days in the age of science.
The intelligent human beings want to know where did they come from? Where did the universe come from? Will the universe come to an end, if so, how?
At-Taqwa: To fear Allaah means, that He be obeyed and not disobeyed, and that He be remembered and not forgotten, and that He be thanked and not denied. At-Taqwa is defined in comprehensive The author says, "The topic of this book, "The Attributes of the Righteous Wife", isn't just for the young woman looking forward to marriage and wants to know about the attributes of a good wife in From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas.
Also, according to Kano Chronicles, during the reign of Yaji, the King of Kano from to , the Wangarawa came from Melle bringing the Mohammedan religion. These examples grew the process of Islamisation or conversion to Islam, as it gathered momentum. Islam also spread into West Africa through the activities of Muslim clerics, marabouts and scholars or mallams. These clerics or learned men founded their own religious centres which attracted students from all parts of the Western Sudan and who on the completion of their studies and training went back to their own homes to win converts.
Many of them went on lecture or missionary tours to convert people, while others became advisers to Sudanese Kings on how to become effective rulers. Some clerics devoted a great deal of their time to writing books and instructions on all aspects of Islam for the education and conversion of people or the purification and strengthening of Islam. Some examples of clerics follow:.
Both of them settled in Mali where they taught Islam. Al-Sahili also designed the great mosque of Timbuktu as well as a magnificent palace for Mansa Musa in the capital of Mali.
He built a mosque and introduced the practice of Koran recital and other devotional exercises. Another brilliant Berber scholar called Abd al-Rahman al-Maghili established his Zawiyaie Islamic school in Tuat in the Sahara, and from there went on a missionary tour of the Western Sudan which lasted from to During this tour, he visited Air, Takedda, Kano, Katsina and Gao and preached to both rulers and commoners.
Islam gained ground in West Africa through the activities of the individual rulers. The rulers of the Western Sudan encouraged the trans-Saharan trade and extended hospitality to both traders and visiting clerics, but perhaps one of the most important ways in which they encouraged acceptance of Islam was through their own conversion.
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With a Muslim King or ruler it rapidly became a matter of prestige among the aristocracy also to convert to Islam in many kingdoms. Many rulers made considerable efforts to encourage Muslim institutions such as Islamic tax and legal systems or the provision of facilities such as mosques, through the appointment of Muslim officials such as judges and butchers who observe the Islamic code and to lead prayers, celebrating Muslim festival and ordering every town under their control to observe the ritual prayers.
The pilgrimages that many of the rulers undertook — such as Mansa Musa and Askia Mohammed — had a considerable spiritual effect increasing their determination both to strengthen and purify Islam and to spread it even further. What is more, another way in which Islam was introduced and spread in West Africa in general and the Western Sudan in particular was the militant jihad, or the waging of holy war against infidels or lukewarm Muslims.
This method allowed the third and final stage of the process of Islamisation to reach its climax with the nineteenth-century jihad in the Western Sudan, between Mali and Senegambia and Hausaland in northern Nigeria.
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The first jihad in the Western Sudan which has accounts was that waged by the head of the Sudanese confederation. It was Tarsina against the Sudanese people in , soon after his return from the pilgrimage to Mecca. He was killed during these clashes. The second is that of the King of Takrur, War-Ajabbi, before his death in The third and the best known of these early jihads was the one declared by the Almoravid movement of ancient Ghana between and by the scholar, Abdallah Ibn Yasin.
Between and s, the Almoravid conquered the whole area between ancient Ghana and Sijilmasa. By the Almoravid Empire stretched from the Senegal in the south across the Mediterranean to Spain in the north. Islam also spread on to West Africa through inter-marriages. The Muslim merchants from North Africa came down settled and married the African women who became Muslims including their children.
The early Muslim missionaries opened Islamic schools and colleges.
The products of these schools and colleges also did well by spreading the religion. They worked with the rulers as advisors, councilors etc. Also one of the greatest clerics and missionaries of the Western Sudan was al-Hajj Suware, the Soninke scholar founded the important Zawiga at Diakha — Bambuk which attracted students from all over the Western Sudan during the first half of the thirteenth century. Scholarship was indeed also attractive to rulers in West Africa, because the widespread use of the Arabic script made administering their kingdoms easier, and tax revenues easier to accrue. Thus, Timbuktu became known for its famous Djingnereber Mosque and prestigious Sankore University, both of which were established in the early s under the reign of the Mali Empire, most famous ruler Mansa Musa.
Islam had a great impact on the people and states of Western Sudan and for that matter West Africa in general. Unlike Christianity, Islam is not a just a religion or a mass of doctrines or beliefs and rituals, but rather a complete way of life or civilization. The following are the effects of Islam in West Africa.
Islam cut across family, clan and ethnic ties and loyalties and emphasized unity and brotherhood.
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It enabled rulers to build larger Kingdoms and empires embracing different peoples and Linguistic groups. It also provided them with a commonly accepted basis of authority in place of African traditional religious which differed from place to place. Many of the rulers of Western Sudan, such as Mansa Musa of Mali, Askia Mohammed of Songhai and Idris Alooma of Borno did attempt to use Islam in these ways to generate a feeling of unity and as a basis of their authority.
Most of the Muslim rulers of Western Sudan adopted the Muslim systems of justice and taxation. Thus, Islam promoted a more efficient administration in some of the states of Western Sudan since it enabled the rulers to employ educated Muslims as secretaries, administrators, judges and diplomats and also to correspond with provincial rulers and administrators. It is significant that even non-Muslim rulers such as those of ancient Ghana before the eleventh century employed some Muslims in their administration.
Furthermore, the holy wars which some rulers waged helped to extend the frontiers of their states. The rulers of Western Sudan established strong diplomatic relations with other Muslim rulers abroad as Mansa Musa and Idris Alooma did with those of Egypt and Tunis respectively. The hajj brought pilgrims into contact with technology and scholarship at the centre of the Muslim world, which were often adopted and introduced when the pilgrims returned home.
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For instance, Idris Alooma of Borno brought back from his pilgrimage musketeers and Turkish military instructors, and created musketeers corps in his army which enabled him to extend the frontiers of his state relatively with ease. The pilgrimage or hajj which Muslims were expected to undertake if they were able to do so, contributed in many ways to the growth and strength of some of the states.
This power was of great importance, especially for the rulers, since it greatly increased their reputation and religious standing among their subjects. Indeed, it is because of the acquisition of this power that the hajj was and is still so popular among Muslims, especially, Muslim rulers. There was the replacement of the worship of false gods in some areas. Converts seriously observed the five pillars of Islam, namely; daily prayers including the Friday congregational prayer, fasting, compulsory alms-giving and pilgrimage to Mecca hajj.
Islam introduced literacy as well as Muslim education into West Africa. Literacy made it possible for scholars to preserve the history and the oral traditions of some of the states in books. Literacy also enabled people in the Western Sudan to join access to the invaluable Islamic literature, sciences and philosophy which broadened their knowledge, improved their statecraft and widened their horizon. As Islam continued to spread in West Africa, schools and educational centres were established in large towns and cities in Western Sudan.
Islam produced great scholars in Western Sudanese states and West Africa as a whole. The third was Ahmed Baba, the author of fifty works on law and a biographical dictionary.
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Thirteen of his writings are known. He was also the owner of an important library. There was also the change in cultural life as a result of the introduction of Islam in West Africa. In all the states of Western Sudan-Muslim wives of prominent men were required to live in purdah seclusion and to veil their faces when they went out.